Information Sources

This page contains links to the sources of information used for this website, blog and video content. To answer additional questions, visit the Frequently Asked Questions page here. For additional book, documentary, website and youtube resources visit the Tree Media page.

INFORMATION SOURCES

Air Facts

“Two mature trees provide enough oxygen for one person to breathe over the course of a year.” – http://www.americanforests.org/explore-forests/forest-facts/

Trees Clean the Air in 4 Different Ways – T.R.E.E. – http://www.ecology.com/2011/09/02/air-and-trees/

“Clean air is important for all life on earth. Air pollution has been related to a range of adverse health and environmental effects such as respiratory infections and acid rain. Trees absorb COthrough photosynthesis to produce oxygen for us to breathe, and intercept air borne particles on leaf surfaces. They also play a critical role in capturing the six common air pollutants and toxic gases: ground-level ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and lead. These pollutants come from dust, pollen, ash, motor vehicles, power plants and other industrial sources. By planting trees and restoring forests we can help minimize the problem of air pollution.” – http://www.americanforests.org/discover-forests/forest-facts/air/

“In 1994, trees in New York City removed an estimated 1,821 metric tons of air pollution at an estimated value to society of $9.5 million.” – http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/units/urban/local-resources/downloads/Tree_Air_Qual.pdf

Trees impact on urban environments: Majora Carter TED talk Greening the Ghetto –https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q2TewSL_Egk

http://www.treehugger.com/natural-sciences/plants-clean-up-more-air-pollution-than-previously-thought.html

https://www.plt.org/stuff/contentmgr/files/1/c985f0eb1ac10ca25d7c6969792ccf88/files/bioremediation.pdf

http://www.ecology.com/2011/09/02/air-and-trees/

Climate Change Facts

The Trillion Trees Campaign ‘How Planting 1 Trillion Trees Can Help Reverse Climate Change’ video sourced much of its information from the book ‘Forests – Reasons to be Hopeful’ by Bill Liao. “This captivating book simply and engagingly captures the vital role forests play in combating the effects of climate change.” – https://www.amazon.ca/Forests-Reasons-Hopeful-Bill-Liao-ebook/dp/B00HUOBNKA/182-4690709-6120737?ie=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0

“In Trees for the Future’s Forest Garden program, the average hectare (2.4 acres) sequesters 62.8 metric tons of Carbon. At a rate of 4,000 trees per Forest garden, this equates to an average Carbon offset of 34.6 pounds of Carbon per tree. This carbon estimate below takes into the account the different capacities across the landscapes where Trees for the Future works to create a single carbon estimate using IPCC default values for agroforestry and forests.” –http://trees.org/story/carbon/

“Many studies have also shown that the agroforestry system can help mitigate climate change by helping with carbon sequestration. Compared to other type of cropping systems, the trees are sequestering carbon and increasing above and below ground carbon stocks.” – http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2015/04/29/3652020/global-soil-week-forum-recap/

“Each fast-growing, beneficial, permanent tree planted in the humid tropics will absorb over 50 pounds of CO2per year. Those 50 pounds, multiplied over a tropical tree’s useful lifespan of 40-plus years, add up to one ton.” – http://greenworld.org/why-trees#why-tropics

“Photosynthesis: Chemical process by which plants containing chlorophyll use sunlight to manufacture their own food by converting carbon dioxide and water to carbohydrates, releasing oxygen as a by-product.” – http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/carbon_cycle.aspx

http://www.treehugger.com/sustainable-agriculture/could-better-soil-management-reverse-global-warming.html

“The Earth’s soils store massive amounts of carbon — more than three times the amount that is in the atmosphere, and four and a half times as much as in all plants and animals.” –http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2016/04/07/3767437/soil-carbon-fighting-climate-change/

“If you look at the global carbon created in nature under land-based systems, soil and trees are the two dominant reservoirs where carbon is stored.” –http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2015/04/29/3652020/global-soil-week-forum-recap/

http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/carbon_cycle.aspx – great article on the ‘carbon cycle’.

Globally, 40 billion tons of CO2 are emitted annually. – http://www.slate.com/blogs/bad_astronomy/2014/08/20/atmospheric_co2_humans_put_40_billion_tons_into_the_air_annually.html – verified by NASA

“Each part per million by volume represents approximately 2.13 gigatonnes of carbon in the atmosphere as a whole.” – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide_in_Earth%27s_atmosphere

“GtC = gigatons of carbon; 1 gigaton equals 1 billion or 1,000,000,000 metric tons (a metric ton is 1000 kilograms); 1 metric ton = 2204.6 pounds (an English system ton is 2000 pounds).” –http://www.undeerc.org/PCOR/sequestration/whatisco2.aspx

“Many scientists, climate experts, and progressive national governments agree with Dr. Hansen (former head of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies and  one of the most respected climatologists in the world) that 350 ppm is the “safe” level of carbon dioxide. Right now we’re at 400 ppm, and we’re adding 2 ppm of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere every year. Unless we are able to rapidly turn that around and return to below 350 ppm this century, we risk triggering tipping points and irreversible impacts that could send climate change spinning truly beyond our control. Since the beginning of human civilization, our atmosphere contained about 275 ppm of carbon dioxide. That is the planet “on which civilization developed and to which life on earth is adapted.” – http://350.org/about/science/

“The industrial activities that our modern civilization depends upon have raised atmospheric carbon dioxide levels from 280 parts per million to 400 parts per million in the last 150 years.” – http://climate.nasa.gov/causes/
A Safe Operating Space for Humanity. Nature 461, 472-475 (24 September 2009); doi:10.1038/461472a; Published online 23 September 2009.

Hansen, James, et al. Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim? Submitted April 7, 2008. NASA climate scientist James Hansen regarding 350ppm target.

Dr. Hansen’s “Climate Science, Awareness, and Solutions” program at Columbia University’s Earth Institute.

The IPCC 5th Assessment Report. The latest report by the Nobel-prize winning United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, supported by the world’s leading climatologists.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Official UNFCCC website with information about the UN climate policy process.

Baer, Paul, Tom Athanasiou and Sivan Kartha. “The Right to Develop in a Climate Constrained World: The Greenhouse Development Rights Framework.” An important policy framework for how to mitigate climate change while ensuring an equitable path to development for the Global South.

“The current episode of global warming is attributed to increasing emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases into Earth’s atmosphere. The global annual mean concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has increased by more than 40% since the start of the Industrial Revolution, from 280 ppm in the mid-18th century to 407 ppm as of 2016.” –https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide_in_Earth%27s_atmosphere

“The recent phenomenon of global warming has been attributed primarily to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in Earth’s atmosphere. While CO2 absorption and release is always happening as a result of natural processes, the recent rise in CO2 levels in the atmosphere is known to be mainly due to human activity. Researchers know this both by calculating the amount released based on various national statistics, and by examining the ratio of various carbon isotopes in the atmosphere, as the burning of long-buried fossil fuels releases CO2 containing carbon of different isotopic ratios to those of living plants, enabling them to distinguish between natural and human-caused contributions to CO2 concentration.” –https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_dioxide_in_Earth%27s_atmosphere

“Current research estimates that permafrost in the Northern Hemisphere holds 1,672 billion tons (Petagrams) of organic carbon. If just 10 percent of this permafrost were to thaw, it could release enough extra carbon dioxide to the atmosphere to raise temperatures an additional 0.7 degrees Celsius (1.3 degrees Fahrenheit) by 2100.” – http://www.earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/CarbonCycle/page5.php – NASA’s earth observatory website.

Economic Facts

Nature is estimated to be worth $33 trillion a year in resources. - http://www.sfgate.com/opinion/article/What-is-nature-worth-There-s-a-powerful-2840627.php

 “A recently published report found that the combined value of outdoor recreation and natural resource conservation annually generates at least $1.7 trillion in economic activity, supports 12.8 million jobs and brings in $211 billion in tax revenue.[1] As the report notes, “this sector of the U.S. economy is larger than the U.S. auto and pharmaceutical industries combined.” Protecting and restoring our forests will ensure on-going economic and environmental viability for our communities.” - http://www.americanforests.org/blog/

“Soil degradation costs sub-Saharan Africa $68 billion per year.” - http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2015/04/29/3652020/global-soil-week-forum-recap/

“Land degradation costs an estimated €30 billion annually worldwide and affects more than a billion people, especially in the dry lands.” - http://www.isric.org/global%20issues/combatting-land-degradation - World Soil Information

"In 1994, trees in New York City removed an estimated 1,821 metric tons of air pollution at an estimated value to society of $9.5 million." - http://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/units/urban/local-resources/downloads/Tree_Air_Qual.pdf

http://news.mongabay.com/2015/11/reforestation-contributed-more-than-5-billion-to-brazils-economy/

Fertilizer Tree Facts
Forest Garden (Agroforestry) Facts

“At the same time, several agriculture-based mitigation options for climate change could generate significant benefits for both food security and climate change adaptation. Increasing soil carbon sequestration through forestry and agro-forestry initiatives and tillage practices, improving efficiency of nutrient management and restoring degraded lands are examples of actions that have large mitigation potential and high co-benefits.” – FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) - http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/35831/icode/

“Many studies have also shown that the agroforestry system can help mitigate climate change by helping with carbon sequestration. Compared to other type of cropping systems, the trees are sequestering carbon and increasing above and below ground carbon stocks.” - http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2015/04/29/3652020/global-soil-week-forum-recap/

“Each fast-growing, beneficial, permanent tree planted in the humid tropics will absorb over 50 pounds of CO2per year. Those 50 pounds, multiplied over a tropical tree's useful lifespan of 40-plus years, add up to one ton.” - http://greenworld.org/why-trees#why-tropics

http://www.treesforthefuture.org/forest-garden/

http://www.treesforthefuture.org/top-10-questions-2014/#Q5

https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=what%20is%20permaculture

http://www.treehugger.com/lawn-garden/what-forest-garden.html

http://www.treehugger.com/sustainable-agriculture/might-be-coolest-photo-farm-youll-ever-see.html

http://permaculturenews.org/2015/12/30/food-forests-an-exploration-part-1/

http://www.worldagroforestry.org/newsroom/media_coverage/fighting-desertification-agroforestry-pakistan

www.worldagroforestry.org

http://www.treehugger.com/sustainable-agriculture/imagine-farming-actually-heals-earth.html

http://www.treehugger.com/green-food/can-agroforestry-and-perennial-farming-solve-drought.html

Land Use & Degradation Facts

Over 5 billion acres of currently degraded land are available for restoration: - http://www.wri.org/resources/maps/atlas-forest-and-landscape-restoration-opportunities

Africa has the greatest potential and opportunity for strategic re-forestation with the highest impact: - http://www.wri.org/blog/2014/05/7-unexpected-places-forest-landscape-restoration

“Erosion, pollution, salinization, over-grazing and fires; these are only a few of the many causes of land degradation and desertification in the world. Land degradation costs an estimated €30 billion annually worldwide and affects more than a billion people, especially in the dry lands. Many poor people in these fragile areas are caught in a vicious cycle of land degradation, less yield, less possibilities to invest in land management, which causes more land degradation. Because politicians are aware of the disastrous effects, 193 countries have signed the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) in 1991.” - http://www.isric.org/global%20issues/combatting-land-degradation

"About 2 million hectares of rainfed and irrigated agricultural lands are lost to production every year due to severe land degradation, among other factors." - http://www.theglobaleducationproject.org/earth/food-and-soil.php

"Over the past 40 years, approximately 30% of the world's cropland has become unproductive." - http://www.theglobaleducationproject.org/earth/food-and-soil.php

"During the past 40 years nearly one-third of the world's cropland (1.5 billion hectares) has been abandoned because of soil erosion and degradation." - http://www.theglobaleducationproject.org/earth/food-and-soil.php

“Each year, some 38,000 square miles of land become severely degraded or turn into desert. About five billion acres of arable land have been stripped of their precious layer of topsoil and been abandoned since the first wheat and barley fields were planted 10,000 years ago. In the past 40 years alone, 30 percent of the planet’s arable land has become unproductive due to erosion, mainly in Asia and Africa. At current erosion rates, soils are being depleted faster than they are replenished, and nearly all of the remaining 11 billion acres of cropland and grazing land suffer from some degree of erosion.” -http://www.earthisland.org/journal/index.php/eij/article/peak_soil/

Atlas of Forest and Landscape restoration Opportunities - http://www.wri.org/resources/maps/atlas-forest-and-landscape-restoration-opportunities

Desertification - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desertification

More on Desertification - http://www.un.org/en/events/desertificationday/background.shtml

Small Scale Farming Facts

"There are approximately 1 billion small share farmers in the developing world and they produce about 80% of the food for the developing world." -  http://www.fao.org/docrep/u8480e/U8480E08.htm

“Out of the 2.5 billion people in poor countries living directly from the food and agriculture sector, 1.5 billion people live in smallholder households. Smallholders are small-scale farmers, pastoralists, forest keepers, fishers who manage areas varying from less than one hectare to 10 hectares and they manage 80% of the farmland in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Smallholders provide up to 80 percent of the food supply in Asian and sub-Saharan Africa.” - http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/nr/sustainability_pathways/docs/Factsheet_SMALLHOLDERS.pdf

“Small scale food producers produce 70% of the total global food production.” - http://ag-transition.org/1769/who-produce-our-food/

Soil Facts

The Trillion Trees Campaign ‘How Trees Help Create Healthy Soil’ video sourced much of its information from the book ‘The Soil Will Save Us’ by Kristin Ohlson. We found it to be a highly valuable, hopeful and insightful book. http://www.kristinohlson.com/

"1 ton of carbon stored in the soil is worth 3+ tons of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere." "One acre that stores 1 ton of carbon in the soil more each year is taking 3 tons of carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere each year." "Land miss use accounts for 30% of the carbon emissions going into the atmosphere." - The Soil Will Save Us - http://www.kristinohlson.com/

Soils hold about 75% of terrestrial carbon: http://www.fao.org/nr/water/docs/Enduring_Farms.pdf - page 28

“The Earth’s soils store massive amount of carbon — more than three times the amount that is in the atmosphere, and four and a half times as much as in all plants and animals.” - http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2016/04/07/3767437/soil-carbon-fighting-climate-change/

“If you look at the global carbon created in nature under land-based systems, soil and trees are the two dominant reservoirs where carbon is stored.” - http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2015/04/29/3652020/global-soil-week-forum-recap/

“The UN estimates that nearly a third of the world’s soil is degraded — in sub-Saharan Africa, that figure is closer to two-thirds. If soil degradation continues at its current rate, the UN estimates that all of the world’s topsoil could be gone in 60 years." http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2015/04/29/3652020/global-soil-week-forum-recap/

“The capacity of people to make soils where soils weren’t good … [has been] completely overlooked,” says James Fairhead, professor of social anthropology of Sussex University. That is, until now." - http://www.nationalgeographic.com/people-and-culture/food/the-plate/2016/06/africa-soil-farming-sustainable/

“Each year, some 38,000 square miles of land become severely degraded or turn into desert. About five billion acres of arable land have been stripped of their precious layer of topsoil and been abandoned since the first wheat and barley fields were planted 10,000 years ago. In the past 40 years alone, 30 percent of the planet’s arable land has become unproductive due to erosion, mainly in Asia and Africa. At current erosion rates, soils are being depleted faster than they are replenished, and nearly all of the remaining 11 billion acres of cropland and grazing land suffer from some degree of erosion.” -http://www.earthisland.org/journal/index.php/eij/article/peak_soil/

"Over the past 40 years, approximately 30% of the world's cropland has become unproductive." - http://www.theglobaleducationproject.org/earth/food-and-soil.php

"During the past 40 years nearly one-third of the world's cropland (1.5 billion hectares) has been abandoned because of soil erosion and degradation." - http://www.theglobaleducationproject.org/earth/food-and-soil.php

"The term phytoremediation is a fancy word for the absorption of dangerous chemicals and other pollutants that have entered the soil. Trees can either store harmful pollutants or actually change the pollutant into less harmful forms. Trees filter sewage and farm chemicals, reduce the effects of animal wastes, clean roadside spills and clean water runoff into streams." - http://forestry.about.com/od/treephysiology/tp/tree_value.htm

“Plants can perform bioremediation through metabolism • Plants can draw chemicals in through their roots to metabolize toxins and release less toxic forms of that substance through their leaves • For example, poplar species such as willow and cottonwood trees, can absorb toxic forms of mercury from the soil and release a less toxic vaporized compound into the air.” – pg. 7 https://www.plt.org/stuff/contentmgr/files/1/c985f0eb1ac10ca25d7c6969792ccf88/files/bioremediation.pdf

“Thousands of years of poor farming and ranching practices—and, especially, modern industrial agriculture—have led to the loss of up to 80 percent of carbon from the world’s soils.” - See more at: http://www.kristinohlson.com/books/soil-will-save-us#sthash.KJ6X2IE8.dpuf

“Evidence is mounting that soil degradation has toppled civilizations as surely as military conquest.” - http://www.fao.org/docrep/t0389e/T0389E02.htm#Erosion%20destroyed%20civilizations

“Erosion, pollution, salinization, over-grazing and fires; these are only a few of the many causes of land degradation and desertification in the world. Land degradation costs an estimated €30 billion annually worldwide and affects more than a billion people, especially in the dry lands. Many poor people in these fragile areas are caught in a vicious cycle of land degradation, less yield, less possibilities to invest in land management, which causes more land degradation. Because politicians are aware of the disastrous effects, 193 countries have signed the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) in 1991." - World Soil Information http://www.isric.org/global%20issues/combatting-land-degradation

Functions of soil - http://www.isric.org/about-soils

Tree Cover Facts

There are 3 trillion trees on the planet: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-34134366

Half of the world’s trees have been cut and not re-planted in the past 10,000 years: - http://nautil.us/blog/theres-plenty-of-space-for-one-trillion-more-trees

http://www.nature.com/news/global-count-reaches-3-trillion-trees-1.18287

3 Trillion Trees on the Planet would make a huge positive impact: file:///Users/bill/Downloads/science-environment-35025276.html

Earth is home to 60,000 species of trees -http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-39492977

Tree Products Facts
Water Facts

The Trillion Trees Campaign ‘How Trees Help Create the Freshwater Supply’ video sourced much of its information from the book ‘Forests – Reasons to be Hopeful’ by Bill Liao. This inspirational book is filled with fascinating and multi-sector facts about trees and forests. https://www.amazon.ca/Forests-Reasons-Hopeful-Bill-Liao-ebook/dp/B00HUOBNKA/182-4690709-6120737?ie=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0

 “Approximately 75% of the world’s accessible freshwater for agricultural, domestic, urban, industrial and environmental uses comes from forests.”- http://www.fao.org/in-action/forest-and-water-programme/en/

"The authors suggest that the global conversation on trees, forests and climate needs to be turned on its head: the direct effects via rainfall and cooling may be more important than the well-studied effects through the global carbon balance. For organizations and agencies working to restore forest ecosystems for climate and people, it is crucial that we pay greater attention to the sustainability of the water processing and cooling aspects of trees and forests." - http://blog.worldagroforestry.org/index.php/2017/02/09/cool-insights-hot-world-trees-forests-recycle-water/

"For large populations to remain where they are located without experiencing the extreme disruptions that can cause migrations, reliable access to water and tolerable atmospheric temperatures must be recognized as stable ingredients of life. As we explain, the maintenance of healthy forests is a necessary pre-condition of this globally-preferential state." - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378017300134

“Forests provide natural filtration and storage systems that process nearly two-thirds of the water supply in the United States.” - http://www.americanforests.org/why-it-matters/why-it-matters-clean-air-and-water/

“One tree can also intercept roughly 760 gallons of rainwater in its lifetime, reducing storm water runoff and erosion.” - http://www.americanforests.org/who-we-are-about-us/frequently-asked-questions/

 

 

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